Please forward this error screen to the christian’s secret of a happy life pdf. This article is about the folklore figure.
The chains could have been introduced in a Christian attempt to ‘bind the Devil’ but again they could be a remnant of pagan initiation rites. The Saint Nicholas festival we are describing incorporates cultural elements widely distributed in Europe, in some cases going back to pre-Christian times. Nicholas himself became popular in Germany around the eleventh century. A large literature, much of it by European folklorists, bears on these subjects. Austrians in the community we studied are quite aware of “heathen” elements being blended with Christian elements in the Saint Nicholas customs and in other traditional winter ceremonies.
They believe Krampus derives from a pagan supernatural who was assimilated to the Christian devil. The Krampus figures persisted, and by the 17th century Krampus had been incorporated into Christian winter celebrations by pairing Krampus with St Nicholas. Krampus accompanying St Nicholas on 5 December from Austria. In the 1950s, the government distributed pamphlets titled “Krampus Is an Evil Man”.
Towards the end of the century, a popular resurgence of Krampus celebrations occurred and continues today. The Krampus tradition is being revived in Bavaria as well, along with a local artistic tradition of hand-carved wooden masks. A 1900s greeting card reading ‘Greetings from Krampus! Although Krampus appears in many variations, most share some common physical characteristics. He thrashes the chains for dramatic effect. The chains are sometimes accompanied with bells of various sizes. The birch branches are replaced with a whip in some representations.
Some of the older versions make mention of naughty children being put in the bag and taken away. Nicholas is celebrated in parts of Europe on 6 December. Nicholas and sometimes on his own, Krampus visits homes and businesses. Unlike North American versions of Santa Claus, in these celebrations Saint Nicholas concerns himself only with the good children, while Krampus is responsible for the bad.
Krampus is often featured looming menacingly over children. He is also shown as having one human foot and one cloven hoof. The twigs are painted gold and displayed year-round in the house—a reminder to any child who has temporarily forgotten Krampus. In smaller, more isolated villages, the figure has other beastly companions, such as the antlered “wild man” figures, and St Nicholas is nowhere to be seen. In these, more tourist-friendly interpretations, Krampus is more humorous than fearsome. Udine province in Italy, an annual Krampus festival is held in early December.
Just before the sun sets, the Krampus come out from an old cave and chase children—boys but also adults—punishing them with strokes on the legs. To satisfy their anger children and young people must recite a prayer. North American Krampus celebrations are a growing phenomenon. Similar figures are recorded in neighboring areas. Miklavž, the Slovenian form of St. In many parts of Croatia, Krampus is described as a devil wearing a cloth sack around his waist and chains around his neck, ankles, and wrists.
As a part of a tradition, when a child receives a gift from St. Krampus will take the gifts for himself and leave only a silver branch to represent the child’s bad acts. Costumed characters are a central part of all Krampus celebrations. These characters include: Krampus, Saint Nikolaus, the woodsman, angels, and the old woman. As Krampus is half-goat and half-demon, the costume normally shares certain primary elements such as: a fur suit, horns, demon mask, and hooves. More often they are made with modern and less costly materials, such as: fake fur and latex masks.
Nicholas procession with Krampus, and other characters, c. Christian Slavic festival where participants wear masks and costumes and run around. Run, Kris Kringle, Krampus is Coming! Christmas markets in the Tyrolean Alps: Representing regional traditions in a newly created world of Christmas”. In David Picard, Mike Robinson.