Typically, antibiotics are given as soon as possible. Disease severity surviving sepsis 2017 pdf determines the outcome.
Estimates suggest sepsis affects millions of people a year. 2 to 3 people per 1000 are affected by sepsis yearly, resulting in about a million cases per year in the United States. Rates of disease have been increasing. Sepsis is more common among males than females.
The two terms, “septicemia” and “blood poisoning”, refer to the microorganisms or their toxins in the blood and are no longer commonly used. This may result in light-headedness. Bruising or intense bleeding may occur. The most common primary sources of infection resulting in sepsis are the lungs, the abdomen, and the urinary tract. No definitive source is found in one third to one half of cases. The increase in average age of the population, more people with chronic diseases, on immunosuppressive drugs, and increase in the number of invasive procedures being performed has led to an increased rate of sepsis. Infections leading to sepsis usually are bacterial, but may be fungal or viral.
Gram positive bacteria was the cause of sepsis before the introduction of antibiotics in the 1950s. After the introduction of antibiotics, gram negative bacteria became the predominant cause of sepsis from the 1960s to the 1980s. Early diagnosis is necessary to properly manage sepsis, as initiation of rapid therapy is key to reducing deaths from severe sepsis. If other sources of infection are suspected, cultures of these sources, such as urine, cerebrospinal fluid, wounds, or respiratory secretions, also should be obtained, as long as this does not delay the use of antibiotics. Lactate should be re-measured if the initial lactate was elevated. Previously, SIRS criteria had been used to define sepsis. According to SIRS, there were different levels of sepsis: sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock.
SIRS in response to an infectious process. More specific definitions of end-organ dysfunction exist for SIRS in pediatrics. Consensus definitions, however, continue to evolve, with the latest expanding the list of signs and symptoms of sepsis to reflect clinical bedside experience. The authors suggested that procalcitonin may serve as a helpful diagnostic marker for sepsis, but cautioned that its level alone cannot definitively make the diagnosis. This same review concluded, however, that SuPAR has prognostic value, as higher SuPAR levels are associated with an increased rate of death in those with sepsis.