A “line function” is one that directly advances an organization in its management koontz pdf free download work. A “staff function” supports the organization with specialized advisory and support functions.
Both terms originated in the military. Organizations begin as line-only, with line manager having direct control over all activities, including administrative ones. Only later, as organizations grow in size, do they add staff positions. Their function is to create, develop, collect and analyze shop information, which flows to line workers in the form of advice. Management theorists advise that functional authority for staff positions should be extremely limited in scope: it should cover only a tiny aspect of the line managers’ job, it should relate only to areas in which line managers have no expertise, and it should be granted only where company-wide uniformity is required.
Common types of functional authority for staff positions include authority over recruiting standards, reimbursement policies and quality standards. Staff specialists say line workers avoid and ignore them, and line workers say staff workers lack expertise in the organization’s core work, distract them, and get in their way. Melville Dalton attributed this to “the conspicuous ambition and individualistic behavior among staff managers,” staff’s anxiety to justify their existence, and the dependence of highly ranked staff managers on line managers. Other management theorists have observed that line managers sometimes resent staff advisors for being younger and better-educated than they are. Management textbooks advise resolving line-staff conflict by explicitly recognizing the mutual dependency of the two, making it clear what the staff role is, de-emphasizing any controlling elements of the staff role, having staff deliberately set out to win the confidence and trust of line workers, and emphasizing the staff role as part of the team. In the 1980s when many large companies began downsizing to reduce their number of employees, staff jobs were eliminated more often than line jobs. Thereafter, line jobs began increasingly to contain some analytic functions, and more new MBA graduates began aspiring to line functions.
Management experts believe organizations should minimize their investment in staff positions, because they increase costs while not directly contributing to the organization’s goals. Mason, OH: South-Western Cenage Learning. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning. This page was last edited on 12 August 2017, at 21:35. This “rough proportionality” must be shown by an individualized determination, with the burden on the government to show its evidence.
Cases and Text on Property, Fifth Edition. Aspen Publishers, New York: 2004, p. University of Florida Levin College of Law. This page was last edited on 1 September 2017, at 19:23.
Click on the bonsai for the next poem. Open Directory Project at dmoz. If a guy somewhere in Asia makes a blog and no one reads it, does it really exist? Lewis and Clark College in Portland, Oregon. Furby, Eliza, Mr_Friss and Miss_Friss. For every atom belonging to me as good belongs to you.
I lean and loafe at my ease observing a spear of summer grass. Hoping to cease not till death. Nature without check with original energy. The distillation would intoxicate me also, but I shall not let it.
I am mad for it to be in contact with me. Have you reckon’d a thousand acres much? Have you practis’d so long to learn to read? Have you felt so proud to get at the meaning of poems?
You shall listen to all sides and filter them from your self. But I do not talk of the beginning or the end. Nor any more heaven or hell than there is now. Always the procreant urge of the world. Always a knit of identity, always distinction, always a breed of life. To elaborate is no avail, learn’d and unlearn’d feel that it is so.