Structural inequality occurs when the fabric of organizations, institutions, governments or social networks contains an embedded bias which provides advantages for some members and inequality in education pdf or produces disadvantages for other members. Structural inequality is believed to be an embedded part of the culture of the United States due to the history of slavery and the subsequent suppression of equal civil rights of minority races. Structural inequality has been encouraged and maintained in the society of the United States through structured institutions such as the public school system with the goal of maintaining the existing structure of wealth, employment opportunities, and social standing of the races by keeping minority students from high academic achievement in high school and college as well as in the workforce of the country.
In the attempt to equalize allocation of state funding, policymakers evaluate the elements of disparity to determine an equalization of funding throughout school districts. Policymakers have to determine a formula based of per-pupil revenue and the student need. History of state funding in U. Education is the base for equality.
Schools have been found to have a unique acculturative process that helps to pattern self-perceptions and world views. Tracking is an educational term that indicates where students will be placed during their secondary school years. These groups or tracks are vocational, general, and academic. Students are sorted into groups that will determine educational and vocational outcomes for the future. The sorting that occurs in the educational system parallels the hierarchical social and economic structures in society. Thus, students are viewed and treated differently according to their individual track.
Each track has a designed curriculum that is meant to fit the unique educational and social needs of each sorted group. Consequently, the information taught as well as the expectations of the teachers differ based on the track resulting in the creation of dissimilar classroom cultures. Simply being enrolled in a school with less access to resources, or in an area with a high concentration of racial minorities, makes one much less likely to gain access to prestigious four-year colleges. Students from these schools comprise only 22. UC system, whereas students from majority white schools make up 65.
At more prestigious schools, like UC Berkeley, the division is even more pronounced. Issues of structural inequality are probably also at fault for the low numbers of students from underserved backgrounds graduating from college. Students from racial minorities are similarly disadvantaged. Despite increased attention and educational reform, this gap has increased in the past 30 years. The costs required to attend college also contribute to the structural inequality in education. The higher educational system in the United States relies on public funding to support the universities. However, even with the public funding, policymakers have voiced their desire to have universities become less dependent on government funding and to compete for other sources of funding.
The result of this could sway many students from low-income backgrounds from attending higher institutions due to the inability of paying to attend. In the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation supported survey, researchers discovered that 6 in 10 students that dropped out was due to the inability to pay for the cost of attending themselves and without help from their families. HN schools need increased access and teacher training in technology resources. HN schools report that “they use, or will use, technology in the classroom more after the workshop” less likely that that of teachers of non-HN schools. Even when teachers in low-SES schools had confidence in their technical skills, other they faced other obstacles, including larger numbers of English language learners and at-risk students, larger numbers of students with limited computer experience, and greater pressure to increase test scores and adhere to policy mandates. Other structural inequalities in access to technology exist in differences in the ratio of students to computers within public schools.