Horticulture principles and practices pdf

IPM as “the careful consideration of all available pest control techniques and subsequent integration of appropriate measures that discourage the development of pest populations and keep pesticides and other interventions to levels that are economically justified and reduce or minimize risks to human health and the environment. IPM emphasizes the growth of a healthy crop with the least possible disruption to agro-ecosystems and encourages natural horticulture principles and practices pdf control mechanisms. IPM pest control since the 1970s.

IPM allows for safer pest control. IPM by reducing risks while maximizing benefits and reducing costs. California developed the concept of “supervised insect control”. This was viewed as an alternative to calendar-based programs. Supervised control was based on knowledge of the ecology and analysis of projected trends in pest and natural-enemy populations.

Supervised control formed much of the conceptual basis for the “integrated control” that University of California entomologists articulated in the 1950s. Integrated control sought to identify the best mix of chemical and biological controls for a given insect pest. Chemical insecticides were to be used in the manner least disruptive to biological control. The term “integrated” was thus synonymous with “compatible. IPM extended the concept of integrated control to all classes of pests and was expanded to include all tactics. Controls such as pesticides were to be applied as in integrated control, but these now had to be compatible with tactics for all classes of pests.

Other tactics, such as host-plant resistance and cultural manipulations, became part of the IPM framework. IPM in all relevant sectors. IPM Coordinating Committee to ensure development and implementation of IPM practices. IPM holds that wiping out an entire pest population is often impossible, and the attempt can be expensive and unsafe. IPM programmes first work to establish acceptable pest levels, called action thresholds, and apply controls if those thresholds are crossed. Allowing a pest population to survive at a reasonable threshold reduces selection pressure.

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